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Research & Development at Grandma’s Genetics

Research & Development at Grandma's Genetics

Between the numerous blogs and seed banks in the cannabis field, we have made it our goal to explain and at the same time promote the topic of breeding and R&D from the ground up so that others can benefit from it as well. Knowledge should always be free in the first place and science is what we don’t know yet, because science is knowledge that improves itself over an undefined period of time. Therefore it is also difficult to talk about facts at certain points. It is probably rather the well-known “Bro-Science”.

But let’s start with the actual topic and slowly work our way through the individual points.

What does Research & Development in Agriculture stand for and how can it best be implemented just as effectively on smaller private acreage or collectively?

Research & Development (R&D) in agriculture refers to the research and development of new technologies, practices and procedures in agriculture to improve efficiency, yields and sustainability. For example, this includes developing new seed varieties, improving farming practices, researching pest management methods, and developing water and resource management technologies.

To effectively implement R&D on smaller private plots or collectively, there are a few options:

1. Cooperate with other farmers: By joining forces with other farmers, resources and ideas can be shared to achieve common goals.

As some of you may have noticed, in 2022 we launched our first small “Research & Development Program” to which anyone who was interested could apply. Of course, there were a few small requirements. It is important to us that our testers are up to the tasks at hand and can keep a detailed diary in text and picture form.

At Grandma’s Genetics, it is important to us to test and have tested new genetics extensively before making them available to the general public if the test results are positive. Only when a new cross grows sufficiently stable, it has the chance to be included in the main menu. If there are important comments, we always include them.

Our goal is to work together on new genetics. If a tester even finds two potential parents and produces a good subsequent generation, this can be tested again and included in our menu, should it meet the requirements of stable genetics.

2. Collaboration with universities and research-oriented organizations: By collaborating with academic institutions and organizations involved in agricultural research, growers can gain access to new technologies and expertise.

We are proud and happy to have students from universities and individuals with academic degrees in our inner circle. They support us in testing new genetics, research projects and detailed reports and articles.

We are in constant exchange to share and compile new ideas, technologies, theories and findings.

Together with Lorenz from Research Gardens we have already published two articles on our blog, you can find them here.

3. Use of open source technologies: There are many open source technologies and tools available for free to farmers to perform R&D on their land.

Open source software for agriculture: there are a number of open source software tools that can help farmers monitor and manage their fields and crops. One example is “FarmOS“, a web-based farming platform that allows farmers to collect, store, and analyze data about their fields and crops.

Open source hardware for agriculture: there are also a number of open source hardware projects that can help farmers monitor and optimize their farming activities. One example is the “Arduino FarmShield“, an open-source kit that allows farmers to automatically monitor and control their fields and crops.Open

Source Plant Varieties: There is also a growing movement to release and distribute open source plant varieties, allowing farmers to build their own seed bank and increase diversity. One example is The Open Source Seed Initiative, an organization dedicated to making open source seeds available and increasing diversity in agriculture.

4. Participation in agricultural exhibitions and fairs: By participating in agricultural exhibitions and fairs, farmers can discover new technologies and practices and exchange ideas with other farmers and experts.

Of course, we are present at exhibitions as well as trade shows. However, we limit ourselves to the most important events, where most of our prospective customers can be found. It should be noted that we are a small team, which does not have large budgets or VC/investors available and therefore tries to work as economically viable as possible. We therefore ask for your understanding if we are not so easy to find. However, everyone is free to contact us if there are any questions about one of our products or which distributors can be found at which trade fairs.

5. Use of online resources and communities: There are many online resources and communities related to agriculture and R&D where growers can share ideas and experiences.

For sure you came across us because you already know some of our work from Instagram, Grow Diaries or other forums. So it is self-explanatory that we use such networks and platforms to constantly grow our community. Nevertheless, we want to stay as independent as possible and would be happy if you subscribe to our newsletter.

We do not send unnecessary emails, which bother you with constant advertising & Co., because the trust and peace of mind of our community is very important to us.

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Hermaphrodites – origins, implications and what the future holds


Hermaphrodite plants are natural and part of cultivating cannabis, even if it is an uncomfortable topic with many. But is their reputation really that bad?

It has not been scientifically proven that hermaphroditism is a negative trait in cannabis plants. However, it is important to note that hermaphroditism can also have disadvantages, such as passing on faulty DNA sequences, instability or disease.

Ultimately, whether hermaphroditism is considered positive or negative depends on a breeder’s breeding goals and specific requirements.

Origin and reasons of hermaphrodites

It is not to be neglected that if hermaphrodite traits are overlooked in a breeding program, they can become noticeable later. Often hermaphrodite traits are not even present in every generation and can also have many backgrounds.

  • Older gene information from earlier times, when plants were monoecious.

  • Cell division errors due to hormone fluctuations or signal interruptions.

  • Meiosis errors where chromosomes do not divide correctly and faulty pollen grains pollinated the female plant. (Meiosis: “maturity division” – the process by which male and female genes randomly mix in a new generation)

Not every hermaphrodite is the same.

Banana / Nana / Low Hermaphrodit
Low Herm: A plant that occasionally produces a banana/pollen sac due to stress, or repeatedly in almost the same place, for example on the lowest shoot.

Median Hermaphrodit
Median Herm: A seed plant which forms several or isolated pollen sacs under each flower or internode (also called leaf axis) in the first run. Clones taken from this plant also show the same characteristics or less, forming only isolated pollen sacs, but no longer on each flower/shoot.

Strong Hermaphrodit
Strong Herm: A plant that obviously develops both sexual characteristics. You can clearly see the formation of male pollen sacs on the top shoot (headbud) and white hairs (also called pistils or stigma, which grow from the calyx) that the female plants form to capture the pollen and ensure their survival.

Those who study cannabis culture in depth will come to similar conclusions. If you take a look at Afghanistan or Pakistan or at the Moroccan fields, you will often find a strongly occurring hermaphrodite in the middle of the field there as well. Often these form all the male pollen sacs on the lower half, which pollinate the upper part of the plant, as it expresses female characteristics there, which capture the pollen and produce new seeds to ensure their survival as mentioned above. This can also be observed in the Strain Hunter episodes from Greenhouse Seeds.

Effects of hermaphrodites

In today’s cannabis world, where it is often all about “bag appeal” or the next hype, it is often forgotten that most strains are strong poly hybrids. These often have such long pedigrees that you have to scroll twice on seedfinder.eu to get to the end.

Of course, we also tried to work with such genetics. Some varieties were stable enough, while others were completely unstable. Here, there were no differences between new high class brands or old breeders. Hermaphrodite plants appeared pretty much everywhere, but also good phenotypes, which had the potential to cultivate them multiple times and create something new with them.

That’s exactly why we keep preaching to get to know your genetics as best as possible before you continue working with them. It often takes several runs, as well as different seasons with different conditions, to find out exactly how stable your genetics are.

The future of hermaphrodites

In the future, so-called “phenohunt(s)” will most likely take place in the lab. This requires only a fraction of a DNA sequence to reproduce the genetic code and the resulting plant. Such DNA sequences can be analyzed for a wide variety of traits such as growth, resistance or taste.

This is also called “marker-assisted breeding” which is a new form of selection.

Marker-assisted breeding (MAB) is a modern method of plant breeding that uses genetic markers to identify and transfer specific traits in plants. It is a more precise and efficient method than traditional breeding and allows breeders to achieve specific traits faster and with higher probability.

MAB is supported by the use of DNA markers that identify specific genes responsible for certain traits such as plant height, yield and disease resistance. Breeders can test plants for these markers to select those that exhibit the desired traits. This speeds up the breeding process and produces higher-quality results.

Undesirable traits or characteristics that have been inherited through previous genetics could be repaired, replaced or even further manipulated through CRISPR/Cas9.

If these topics interest you, feel free to read on here: CRISPR/Cas9 in Cannabis – The Future of Genetic Engineering

Until next time.


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The aim of plant breeding is the genetic modification of plant populations to improve biological [...]

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The ingredients of the cannabis plant have fascinated us humans for over 5000 years. Even [...]

We hunt terpenes: effects, interactions, flavors.

When grandma used to come back from her heath walks with fresh limes from the [...]

A love letter to Grandma

A love letter to Grandma

In February 2021, we received a wonderful love letter from a gardener who had entered one of our sweepstakes. With his permission, we are allowed to publish this letter and share it with you.

We were very touched by his heartfelt words of love for our Grandma’s Punch variety. But read for yourself…

Grandma‘s got the hardest Punch

Yeah, Grandma can hit really good, let me tell you. How do I know? Well, I know because she hit me 6 times and I smoked 4 of her punches right to the face. In case that sounds confusing let me give you a little context: In February 2021 I won 12 regular seeds of the strain Grandma‘s Punch by the breeder Grandma‘s Genetics. The whole experience from winning the seeds to germinating them to growing the plants and finally harvesting them was a win in itself, however, I wanted to point out that I didn‘t buy these seeds but, as I said, won them. In fact, I did not buy a single seed from Grandma‘s Genetics to this day and still the company supported me in all possible ways. I will be growing lots of their strains in my next cycle. They are really passionate about their work and look out for their customers as well as for their genetics. I feel like their number one priority is not earning big money with cannabis seeds, but it is to create remarkable strains with thrilling characteristics and of top shelf quality. And certainly to spread love, just like a lot of Grandmas do.

Now for the grow: I put 6 of the Grandma’s Punch seeds directly into little pots filled Biobizz Light mix, watered them carefully and placed them under a humidity dome. I don‘t like the paper towel method or even soaking the seeds in a glass of water. It’s just not for me, I have always had the best results putting seeds directly into soil/potting mix. I also feel like this is the most natural way.

In this paritcular case all of the 6 seeds germinated within 4 days making for a perfect fast and easy 100% germination rate.

To be fair though, I have to say that the 6 seeds all produced very different looking plants, lots of diversity in these genetics, but if you are looking to phenohunt the best genetics of a given strain, diversity is just what you want. And it’s also what makes a strain survive in nature, so diversity is always a good thing in my opinion. Anyways, these 6 Grandma‘s Punch plants didn‘t have to survive out in the wild, but were lucky enough to enjoy the warmth and comfort of my indoor growing setup.

They spent most of their vegetative stage under a small 30 Watt Sanlight LED. For about 4 weeks I just let them grow naturally without any training or pruning, just to see how they would behave in the conditions of my veg-space. After 2 weeks I transplanted them from their little germination pots into 2l-squarepots using Biobizz Light Mix again. Root development was awesome and although the plants grew in Light Mix they never needed any extra fertilizer and still grew vigorously all the way. About 32 days into veg, I placed the 6 plants into my flowering tent in order to get to know their genders. It took them no longer than 10 days to confidently show their preflowers and I was really excited to find out that 4 of my 6 Grandma‘s Punch were females. As I am limited on space I couldn‘t keep the males around although they both gave off a very delicious, spicy and sweet kush odor when rubbing the leafs and stems. Just gotta move on sometimes, you know the deal.

For the 4 remaining females however, big things were to come. After showing their preflowers the female plants moved back into the veg space in order to switch from preflower to veg-stage again before having their clones taken. The plan was to keep the original plants, the ones which germinated from seed, as moms and send their cuttings into flower and that‘s just what I did.

Seemingly though, I did not wait long enough for the plants to switch from preflower to veg again. Nothing bad came from that, the clones rooted just fine within about 10 days, but once they started to grow again, they only produced 1- and 3-fingered leaves. I was a bit concerned sending these weird looking clones into flower but, spoiler alert, they turned out amazing. On a side note: the moms started to produce 5- and 7-fingered leafs again in no time. What I did was kind of an unintentional stress test, I guess and those old Grannys passed it with flying colours.

Once in flowering the plants stretched about 100% to 150% meaning most of them doubled in size while one of them even grew a bit taller than that. In the flowering tent they enjoyed 225 watts of high grade full-spectrum Sanlight LED light. For the first 6 weeks of flower I gave them really small doses of Advanced Nutrients ph-perfect flowering fertilizer. About 1ml/l with every watering so about once a week. In week 7 I began to flush with water only. Then after about 8,5 weeks the plants clearly began the process of senesence. No longer receiving any nutrients the leaves turned all kinds of autumn colours and the flowers got a purple hue to them. One more thing I want to be said is that the temperatures and humidity in my flowering tent weren’t anywhere near optimum all along the flowering stage. Temps ranged from 16 to 22 degrees celsius with humidity peaking at more than 80% late into the grow and never dropping below 69%. I was worried that these dense buds would begin to mold but luckily that never happened. So that’s another good thing to say about this strain: It seems to be mold-resistant and not to finicky when it comes to temps and fertilization. It didn‘t mind the cool environment and still produced good results regarding quantity and especially regarding quality.

All in all I can only say good things about Grandma‘s Punch and the same goes for its breeder Grandma‘s Genetics.

If anything, one could argue that the 6 seeds produced very different looking plants which might hint to an opportunity of improvement in terms of consistency in the genetics. But that could also have been a coincidence in my case and can really not be taken for granted. Ultimately, the outcome of the grow was very consistent. Way more important, in my opinion, is that none of the plants showed any problems with mold, diseases or even hermaphrodites even though they were met with rather tough conditions. A really vigorous and reliable strain with outstanding bag-appeal and sweet, spicy and fruity kush-aromas.


What does breeding actually mean?

Plant Pollination by Grandma's Genetics

The aim of plant breeding is the genetic modification of plant populations to improve biological and economic properties. It is based on plant selection, seed treatment or crossing with subsequent selection of daughter plants for the next breeding cycle or subsequent propagation as seeds of a new plant variety (seed breeding).

Since you have now read the official declaration of “breeding”, we would like to say a few things about it and one thing directly in advance: All texts here are purely for information purposes as well as for further education and pure entertainment. It is a subjective opinion summarized from experiences and stories collected over the years.We are not calling for imitation of any of these things or anything like that.

Everyone breeds in his own way. To call things “wrong” or “right” is not our thing, because there are no limits to creative freedom. Some prefer to work in small fields while others prefer a small garden with smaller pots, because it is the seed that makes each plant unique.

See also: Genotype vs. Phenotype – What’s the difference?

Every breeder is his own blacksmith, cook and teacher at the same time and this is a good thing, because each of them makes his own experiences and thus tells his own universal story. But between all the interesting stories one thing will always remain the same. Breeding means investing a lot of time and effort. Because new and interesting terpene profiles are not available at every corner and not every female plant gets along with every male.

Breeding new and interesting varieties involves planting a wide range of seeds to have the widest possible selection of genotypes and phenotypes.

From these seeds, most breeders choose the most stable varieties, which they find most appealing in appearance, growth, smell and taste (in female plants). Accurate laboratory tests of canabinoids, terpenes and microorganisms help today’s breeders to select their strongest phenotypes, which are then pollinated with their selected males. A new gene pool (F1) is created. The breeder could now create an F2 generation by reselecting the seeds or work on a backcross, which can be developed with the same (already selected) male.

See also: What does F1, S1, BX1 & IBL stand for?

Some breeders prefer to feminize their favorite phenotypes. This usually involves the use of chemicals such as STS (Silver Thiosulfate) or others. To perform these processes, the Female Plant is “Reserved”, i.e. sprayed with STS to stop the female hormones within the plant so that it develops male traits like pollen sacs which in turn are used for pollination to produce the feminized seeds (S1).

See also: Differences between Regular, Feminized and Automatic Seeds

As you can see, this topic gets lost very quickly in various sub-themes and possibilities. To go into each of them in more detail you need several blogs. We hope that this little insight could help you so far.

Genotype vs. Phenotype – What’s the difference?

Genotype and phenotype are terms used in genetics and refer to the characteristics of plants. [...]

What does F1, S1, BX1 & IBL stand for?

“F1”, “IBL”, “BX” and “S1” are terms used in cannabis breeding to describe different generations [...]

Differences between Regular, Feminized and Automatic Seeds

Regular, feminized and automatic seeds differ in terms of their use and purpose in growing [...]

Welcome to Grandma’s Blog

Nice of you to stop by…

The time has come. After many years of selecting and developing our own varieties with the website.

It is important to us to start small but nice. As most of you already know, it is important for us to take you on a journey so that you understand the passion we share with you as best as possible and you may even learn something on the side.

The material that is published here in the blog is for educational and informational purposes only.

Be like a seed. Be unique.

Grandma’s Journal will try to explain certain “ground basics”, such as certain characteristics of the plant, what they are and which processes take place within the plant in which phase. Additionally there are always some personal notes to round off the whole thing and not to keep it stiff.

Take life easy and enjoy your days on this beautiful planet which is gradually being destroyed more and more.
This is one of the reasons why our genetics are so important to us. It serves exclusively to maintain the gene pool, which is our right as a human being, that it will be maintained.

Findings on HpLVd (Hop latent Viroid) in cannabis.

What is “Hop latent Viroid” and where did it come from? Hop Latent Virus (HLV, [...]

What does F1, S1, BX1 & IBL stand for?

“F1”, “IBL”, “BX” and “S1” are terms used in cannabis breeding to describe different generations [...]

Genotype vs. Phenotype – What’s the difference?

Genotype and phenotype are terms used in genetics and refer to the characteristics of plants. [...]