Findings on HpLVd (Hop latent Viroid) in cannabis.

Hop Latent Virus Cannabis Plant (left) vs Healthy Plant (right)

What is “Hop latent Viroid” and where did it come from?

Hop Latent Virus (HLV, HLVd, HpLVd), as the name suggests, is a viroid. It is arranged as a single-stranded circular RNA consisting of 256 nucleotides.

This infection spread to hop propagation companies in the late 1970s [1]. It did not come to the attention of the scientific community until the 1980s, when this viroid was detected in hops worldwide [2]. Externally, there are no symptoms on the leaves of infected hop plants, but growth and yield are reduced, and the content of terpenes in hop trichomes changes [3,4].

Why is this interesting for us now?

Cannabis and hops both belong to the Cannabaceae family, and because of their close relationship, HLV can also infect cannabis and hemp plants.

But where hops have only a mild disease response, the disease is more devastating in cannabis. So how long have we been dealing with this? What are the symptoms? How to avoid it?

HLV Short Info:

  • HLV does not need a host plant to survive – it only uses a plant’s metabolic system for replication.
  • HLV can remain latent (def. latent = present but not [yet] appearing) in the host plant, making it difficult to detect.
  • HLV does not kill the host plant.

But how did cannabis come to struggle with viroid now?

Good question. In recent years, we have seen an expansion of the cannabis industry in the US and Canada. Thus, more acreage of different plant crops were next to each other and there was a higher exchange of diseases [5]. So also hops and cannabis. In nature, the spread of viruses and also this viroid is mostly through insects that feed on both plants [6]. The transmission of HLV through pollen and subsequently seeds was demonstrated in 2023 by Atallah et al [7]. Infected female plants were pollinated with healthy pollen and 85% of the resulting seeds were also infected. They also tested it the other way round, a healthy female plant was pollinated with infected pollen. 55% of the resulting seeds were infected. In comparison, the figure for hops is around 8%. We also know that we can pass the viroid between plants, namely during vegetative propagation and the use of contaminated tools [8].

Since when is it a problem for cannabis?

The first description and discussion of the disease in cannabis was in 2014 and played out on internet forums. At the time, it was referred to as “duds” or “dudding disease” [9]. Graham Farrar of Glass House Farm in California noted symptoms on several cultivars in 2017. A search for the disease was conducted in collaboration with scientists from Phylos Bioscience. In 2019, the scientists were able to provide evidence that the “duds” were HLV-infected plants [10,11]. Impressively, according to a 2021 study, approximately 90% of all cannabis cultivation operations in California tested positive for HLV and 30% of the plants in each operation showed symptoms of infection with the viroid [12]. Since its initial discovery in California, it did not take long for HLV to make its way further north to British Columbia, Canada.

What does an infected cannabis plant look like and what happens to it?

As mentioned earlier, HLVd does not cause visible symptoms in infected cannabis plants, and under certain circumstances the viroid can remain latent for weeks or even months. As with hops, only some cannabis cultivars show HLV-associated symptoms, meaning that both the expression of symptoms and the severity of the disease depend on the genotype [12].

In susceptible cultivars, HLV leads to symptoms such as [10, 11, 12]:

  • shorter internode spacing
  • smaller leaves
  • stunting
  • malformation (externally horizontal plant structure)
  • chlorosis
  • brittle stems
  • reduced vigor
  • reduced water uptake
  • reduced flower mass and trichomes

In addition, cuttings from symptomatic plants taken for cuttings propagation showed a lower rooting rate [10].

Video content submitted by @Progeny.Farms

In the flowering stage, the other symptoms are evident [5, 12]:

  • smaller inflorescences
  • looser inflorescences
  • deformation of inflorescences
  • lower production of trichomes

These effects lead to a loss of quality and yield. Due to the lower number of trichomes, cannabinoid and terpene production can be reduced by up to 50%.

Can I still save my infected plant?

Short answer. No, but if you really want it bad enough, you can use in vitro techniques to do it. In a 2008 study with hops, HLV concentrations were found to be lower in warmer months and climates, with higher concentrations in the roots and lower parts of the plant [13]. In other words, this means that at peak warm temperatures there is a lower, to no, HLV load. Dark Heart Nursery has taken advantage of this and describes their approach in a podcast recorded in 2019. In their treatment protocol, the plant is exposed to warm temperatures and a meristem tissue culture is grown. Once the culture is old enough to be tested, we find out if the purification really worked [14]. But this method takes a lot of time and effort.

What can I do now to make my garden clean?

Do not accept cuttings where you do not know 100% that they are clean. If you are not sure, you should isolate your newly acquired cutting from your other plants. If symptoms appear while you are growing, this is critical. If you have been using the same tool on your other plants without sterilizing it in between or defoliating with your hands without washing them between each plant, the possibility is very high that all your plants are at risk [5]. The next step would be to test them. If the test is positive, you have no choice but to destroy all the plants and start the grow all over again. Sorry.

The good side:

There are still growers and breeders who take care of their genetics and work cleanly. You should stick to them. When you buy a cutting, make sure it is clean. You can ask for a test of the mother plant.
Currently, the best choice to not get HLV is to work clean, have good protection from insects and use seeds from respected and transparent breeders.

This article was written by our guest author Science Herbalist. The information written here is based on the current state of science (26.02.2024). If there are any new findings, we will try to update this blog article or write another one.


  1. BARBARA, D. J., MORTON, A., & ADAMS, A. N. (1990): Assessment of UK hops for the occurrence of hop latent and hop stunt viroids. Annals of Applied Biology, 116(2), 265–272.
  2. PUCHTA, H., RAMM, K., & SÄNGER, H. L. (1988): The molecular structure of hop latent viroid (HLV), a new viroid occurring worldwide in hops. Nucleic Acids Research, 16(10), 4197–4216.
  3. BARBARA, D. J., MORTON, A., ADAMS, A. N., & P.GREEN, C. (1990): Some effects of hop latent viroid on two cultivars of hop (Humulus lupulus) in the UK. Annals of Applied Biology, 117(2), 359–366.
  4. PATZAK, J., HWNYCHOVA, A., KROFTA, K., SVOBODA, P., MAlirova, I. (2021): The Influence of Hop Latent Viroid (HLVd) Infection on Gene Expression and Secondary Metabolite Contents in Hop (Humulus lupulus L.) Glandular Trichomes. Plants. 2021; 10(11):2297
  5. PUNJA, Z. K. (2021): Emerging diseases of Cannabis sativa and sustainable management. Pest Management Science, 77(9), 3857–3870.
  6. CROWLE, D. R., PETHYBRIDGE, S. J., & WILSON, C. R. (2006): Transmission of Hop Latent and Hop Mosaic Carlaviruses by Macrosiphum euphorbiae and Myzus persicae. Journal of Phytopathology, 154(11-12), 745–747.
  7. PETHYBRIDGE, S.J.; HAY, F.S.; BARBARA, D.J.; EASTWELL, K.C.; WILSON, C.R. (2008): Viruses and viroids Infecting hop: Significance, epidemiology, and management. Plant Dis., 92, 324–338.
  8. LAVAGI, I.; MATOUSEK, J.; VIDALAKI, G. (2017): Other Cocadviroids. In Viroids and Satellites; Elsevier: Amsterdam, The Netherlands, pp. 275–287
  10. WARREN, J.G.; MERCADO, J.; GRACE, D. (2019): Occurrence of hop latent viroid causing disease in Cannabis sativa in California. Plant Dis., 103, 2699.
  11. BEKTAS, A., HARDWICK, K. M., WATERMAN, K., & KRISTOF, J. (2019): The Occurrence of Hop Latent Viroid in Cannabis sativa with symptoms of Cannabis Stunting Disease in California. Plant Disease.
  12. ADKAR-PURUSHOTHAMA, C.R., SANO, T., PERREAUL, J-P. (2023): Hop Latent Viroid: A Hidden Threat to the Cannabis Industry. Viruses.; 15(3):681
  13. PETHYBRIDGE, S.J, FHAY, S., Dez J. Barbara, Kenneth C. Eastwell, Calum R. Wilson. (n.d.). (2008): Viruses and Viroids Infecting Hop: Significance, Epidemiology, and
  14. Dark Heart Nursery (2019): Dark Heart Nursery Identifies “Dudding” Pathogen – Hop Latent Viroid [Video].

Research & Development at Grandma’s Genetics

Between the numerous blogs and seed banks in the cannabis field, we have made it our goal to explain and at the same time promote the topic of breeding and R&D from the ground up so that others can benefit from it as well. Knowledge should always be free in the first place and science is what we don’t know yet, because science is knowledge that improves itself over an undefined period of time. Therefore it is also difficult to talk about facts at certain points. It is probably rather the well-known “Bro-Science”.

But let’s start with the actual topic and slowly work our way through the individual points.

What does Research & Development in Agriculture stand for and how can it best be implemented just as effectively on smaller private acreage or collectively?

Research & Development (R&D) in agriculture refers to the research and development of new technologies, practices and procedures in agriculture to improve efficiency, yields and sustainability. For example, this includes developing new seed varieties, improving farming practices, researching pest management methods, and developing water and resource management technologies.

To effectively implement R&D on smaller private plots or collectively, there are a few options:

1. Cooperate with other farmers: By joining forces with other farmers, resources and ideas can be shared to achieve common goals.

As some of you may have noticed, in 2022 we launched our first small “Research & Development Program” to which anyone who was interested could apply. Of course, there were a few small requirements. It is important to us that our testers are up to the tasks at hand and can keep a detailed diary in text and picture form.

At Grandma’s Genetics, it is important to us to test and have tested new genetics extensively before making them available to the general public if the test results are positive. Only when a new cross grows sufficiently stable, it has the chance to be included in the main menu. If there are important comments, we always include them.

Our goal is to work together on new genetics. If a tester even finds two potential parents and produces a good subsequent generation, this can be tested again and included in our menu, should it meet the requirements of stable genetics.

2. Collaboration with universities and research-oriented organizations: By collaborating with academic institutions and organizations involved in agricultural research, growers can gain access to new technologies and expertise.

We are proud and happy to have students from universities and individuals with academic degrees in our inner circle. They support us in testing new genetics, research projects and detailed reports and articles.

We are in constant exchange to share and compile new ideas, technologies, theories and findings.

Together with Lorenz from Research Gardens we have already published two articles on our blog, you can find them here.

3. Use of open source technologies: There are many open source technologies and tools available for free to farmers to perform R&D on their land.

Open source software for agriculture: there are a number of open source software tools that can help farmers monitor and manage their fields and crops. One example is “FarmOS“, a web-based farming platform that allows farmers to collect, store, and analyze data about their fields and crops.

Open source hardware for agriculture: there are also a number of open source hardware projects that can help farmers monitor and optimize their farming activities. One example is the “Arduino FarmShield“, an open-source kit that allows farmers to automatically monitor and control their fields and crops.Open

Source Plant Varieties: There is also a growing movement to release and distribute open source plant varieties, allowing farmers to build their own seed bank and increase diversity. One example is The Open Source Seed Initiative, an organization dedicated to making open source seeds available and increasing diversity in agriculture.

4. Participation in agricultural exhibitions and fairs: By participating in agricultural exhibitions and fairs, farmers can discover new technologies and practices and exchange ideas with other farmers and experts.

Of course, we are present at exhibitions as well as trade shows. However, we limit ourselves to the most important events, where most of our prospective customers can be found. It should be noted that we are a small team, which does not have large budgets or VC/investors available and therefore tries to work as economically viable as possible. We therefore ask for your understanding if we are not so easy to find. However, everyone is free to contact us if there are any questions about one of our products or which distributors can be found at which trade fairs.

5. Use of online resources and communities: There are many online resources and communities related to agriculture and R&D where growers can share ideas and experiences.

For sure you came across us because you already know some of our work from Instagram, Grow Diaries or other forums. So it is self-explanatory that we use such networks and platforms to constantly grow our community. Nevertheless, we want to stay as independent as possible and would be happy if you subscribe to our newsletter.

We do not send unnecessary emails, which bother you with constant advertising & Co., because the trust and peace of mind of our community is very important to us.

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CRISPR/Cas9 in Cannabis – The Future of Genetic Engineering

What is CRISPR?

CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats) is an innovative biotechnology tool based on a natural safety function in bacteria. It uses a protein called Cas9 and a bound RNA (gRNA) with a 17-20 nucleotide sequence to recognize and cut specific segments of DNA. In biotechnology, CRISPR is used as genetic scissors to modify genes and create new functions.

How long has gene modification existed in animals and plants?

Gene modification in animals and plants is not a new technology. The first gene was inserted into a plant cell as early as the 1980s. Since then, the technology has evolved and it has become possible to specifically modify genes to achieve desired traits such as resistance to pests or higher yields.

How does CRISPR work in plants?

CRISPR/Cas9 can be used to selectively cut genes in plants to change specific traits. To do this, the CRISPR/Cas9 system is inserted into the plant cell, where it finds the desired gene and cuts it. A new gene can then be inserted to confer the desired trait. The modification is then transferred to the offspring.

Diagram of CRISPR Process


What companies are already working with CRISPR in the cannabis industry?

A number of companies working in the cannabis sector are already using CRISPR. These include:

  • Ebbu: This company, acquired by Canopy Growth Corp. in 2018, was one of the first to use CRISPR to create single-cannabinoid strains.

  • Sunrise Genetics: In 2018, Sunrise Genetics managed to decode the genome of cannabis.

  • CanBreed: Since 2017, CanBreed, an Israeli genetic seed company, has been part of the cannabis industry. In 2020, it acquired a CRISPR/Cas9 patent, making it the first company to have a CRISPR license in the industry.

How can CRISPR help in terms of cannabis breeding/seeds?

  • Increasing quality: CRISPR can be used to modify certain genes in cannabis plants to increase the concentration of THC or CBD, or to decrease undesirable traits such as odor.

  • Increasing yields: By modifying genes responsible for plant growth and flowering, yields can be increased.

  • Pest resistance: CRISPR can be used to add genes that make plants more resistant to pests and diseases.

  • Improving growing conditions: CRISPR can be used to add genes that allow plants to better cope with adverse climate conditions such as drought or flooding.

  • Standardizing seeds: CRISPR can be used to standardize seeds so that they have consistent traits, making them valuable for farming and growing cannabis plants.

In the cannabis industry, CRISPR thus offers great opportunities to improve the quality and efficiency of cultivation.

Whether the use of CRISPR is “ethically correct” is a matter of debate. But the fact is that the U.S. Department of Agriculture announced in 2018 that it would not regulate CRISPR-modified crops as long as the modifications were made with related plant DNA.

This announcement paved the way for further research and application of CRISPR in agriculture and plant breeding.

In summary, CRISPR/Cas9 is a powerful tool in biotechnology that allows scientists to target and modify genes to create new traits in plants and animals. This has the potential to revolutionize agriculture and plant breeding and improve livelihoods and food security worldwide.

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Hermaphrodites – origins, implications and what the future holds

Hermaphrodite plants are natural and part of cultivating cannabis, even if it is an uncomfortable topic with many. But is their reputation really that bad?

It has not been scientifically proven that hermaphroditism is a negative trait in cannabis plants. However, it is important to note that hermaphroditism can also have disadvantages, such as passing on faulty DNA sequences, instability or disease.

Ultimately, whether hermaphroditism is considered positive or negative depends on a breeder’s breeding goals and specific requirements.

Origin and reasons of hermaphrodites

It is not to be neglected that if hermaphrodite traits are overlooked in a breeding program, they can become noticeable later. Often hermaphrodite traits are not even present in every generation and can also have many backgrounds.

  • Older gene information from earlier times, when plants were monoecious.

  • Cell division errors due to hormone fluctuations or signal interruptions.

  • Meiosis errors where chromosomes do not divide correctly and faulty pollen grains pollinated the female plant. (Meiosis: “maturity division” – the process by which male and female genes randomly mix in a new generation)

Not every hermaphrodite is the same.

Low Herm: A plant that occasionally produces a banana/pollen sac due to stress, or repeatedly in almost the same place, for example on the lowest shoot.

Median Hermaphrodit
Median Herm: A seed plant which forms several or isolated pollen sacs under each flower or internode (also called leaf axis) in the first run. Clones taken from this plant also show the same characteristics or less, forming only isolated pollen sacs, but no longer on each flower/shoot.

Strong Hermaphrodit
Strong Herm: A plant that obviously develops both sexual characteristics. You can clearly see the formation of male pollen sacs on the top shoot (headbud) and white hairs (also called pistils or stigma, which grow from the calyx) that the female plants form to capture the pollen and ensure their survival.

Those who study cannabis culture in depth will come to similar conclusions. If you take a look at Afghanistan or Pakistan or at the Moroccan fields, you will often find a strongly occurring hermaphrodite in the middle of the field there as well. Often these form all the male pollen sacs on the lower half, which pollinate the upper part of the plant, as it expresses female characteristics there, which capture the pollen and produce new seeds to ensure their survival as mentioned above. This can also be observed in the Strain Hunter episodes from Greenhouse Seeds.

Effects of hermaphrodites

In today’s cannabis world, where it is often all about “bag appeal” or the next hype, it is often forgotten that most strains are strong poly hybrids. These often have such long pedigrees that you have to scroll twice on to get to the end.

Of course, we also tried to work with such genetics. Some varieties were stable enough, while others were completely unstable. Here, there were no differences between new high class brands or old breeders. Hermaphrodite plants appeared pretty much everywhere, but also good phenotypes, which had the potential to cultivate them multiple times and create something new with them.

That’s exactly why we keep preaching to get to know your genetics as best as possible before you continue working with them. It often takes several runs, as well as different seasons with different conditions, to find out exactly how stable your genetics are.

The future of hermaphrodites

In the future, so-called “phenohunt(s)” will most likely take place in the lab. This requires only a fraction of a DNA sequence to reproduce the genetic code and the resulting plant. Such DNA sequences can be analyzed for a wide variety of traits such as growth, resistance or taste.

This is also called “marker-assisted breeding” which is a new form of selection.

Marker-assisted breeding (MAB) is a modern method of plant breeding that uses genetic markers to identify and transfer specific traits in plants. It is a more precise and efficient method than traditional breeding and allows breeders to achieve specific traits faster and with higher probability.

MAB is supported by the use of DNA markers that identify specific genes responsible for certain traits such as plant height, yield and disease resistance. Breeders can test plants for these markers to select those that exhibit the desired traits. This speeds up the breeding process and produces higher-quality results.

Undesirable traits or characteristics that have been inherited through previous genetics could be repaired, replaced or even further manipulated through CRISPR/Cas9.

If these topics interest you, feel free to read on here: CRISPR/Cas9 in Cannabis – The Future of Genetic Engineering

Until next time.


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What does F1, S1, BX1 & IBL stand for?

“F1”, “IBL”, “BX” and “S1” are terms used in cannabis breeding to describe different generations of cannabis strains. Here are the main differences:


F1 stands for “First Hybrid Generation”. It is the first generation resulting from a cross between two different parent plants. Often F1 hybrid plants show distinct traits of the pollinated mother plant as well as mild to moderately strong traits of the father (pollen donor). This is also referred to as dominant and recessive traits.

If someone then breeds an F2 generation by crossing an F1 Female with an F1 Male from the same batch, the diversity of the different traits and characteristics is already significantly greater. Also disease characteristics from earlier generations become clearly more visible. Therefore, from this point on, it becomes more and more important to select particularly thoroughly. To work your way through generation after generation to the inbred line (IBL), you should have a precise goal in mind, which you are working towards in terms of growth, resistance, taste and effect.

In today’s cannabis world where a lot of crossbreeding is going on and most strains are already hybrids, we always notice that certain breeders keep talking about F1 without having thoroughly analyzed the pedigree of both pairs of parents.

Inside the cannabis bubble a true F1 requires that no identical varieties from previous generations overlap in the pedigree of both pairs of parents. So if the female mother plant and the associated male, both have a Skunk #1 in their curriculum vitae, then this hybrid cross is not F1 genetics!

Outside the cannabis bubble, i.e. in agriculture, which is regulated, we talk about F1 hybrid varieties as soon as a so-called heterosis effect has been achieved. This happens when you have two parent lines, which in the best case do not have the same pedigrees and which have been crossed with themselves about eight times. We are talking about a “Selfing” (Female/Reversed) and not a regular (Male/Female) pollination.

The selfing process (S1) is explained in more detail below.

If this process is repeated up to eight times (S8), both pairs of parents are genetically so far apart that when crossing these two parents, a so-called heterosis effect occurs, which makes the plant appear even larger, stronger and more stable.

See also: CRISPR/Cas9 in Cannabis – The Future of Genetic Engineering


IBL stands for “Inbred Line.” It refers to seeds that come from a stable and inbred line of parent plants. Here, at each generation (F1, F2, F3, etc.), a breeder can select his most appealing female as well as males and cross them with each other to work through generation after generation and enhance certain positive traits and mitigate negative traits, if any. IBL plants show less genetic variability and are usually hardy and robust. It is often referred to as an inbred line (IBL) from the eighth generation (F8) onwards, as this variety has so often been mated with its own siblings, rather than with other genotypes which have a completely different pedigree.

See also: Genotype vs. Phenotype – What’s the difference?

If you want to do a really serious IBL project, you should make sure from the first F1 generation that both parents, or at least one of the two, already comes from a stable inbred line. This at least increases the chance that bad traits have already been bred out of these genetics. Again, sites like should be used to research the pedigrees and histories of the individual varieties. Many seed banks nowadays randomly cross two hybrids with each other and throw them on the retail market as “stable F1 genetics”. Whether these genetics are really that stable is debatable. This certainly depends on the breeder and his selection. Poly-hybrid genetics can also have very interesting properties. Some of the best known varieties are even derived from hermaphrodite pollination or so-called bagseeds.

See also: Hermaphrodites – origins, implications and what the future holds


BX stands for “backcross.” It is a method in which a hybrid is crossed with one of its parent plants (the same male that served in the first pollination to create the hybrid) to obtain or improve certain desired traits.

BX seeds usually have a good combination of stability and desired traits.There are a wide variety of backcrossing methods. However, the most popular is as described above, in which the same male plant is taken over and over again and re-matched with a female plant from the first generation or from the already successful backcross to produce new seeds again.

With our Critical Cake (Wedding Cake x Critical Kush) cross, we did two backcrosses. The first was with Critical Cake #1 which in turn was pollinated with the same Critical Kush male as Wedding Cake from which Critical Cake was created. We named the resulting strain Grandma’s OG, as it showed distinct OG characteristic traits for us.

Another backcross was made with our Critical Cake #7. This phenotype showed traits of both parent pairs. It has fast growth, produces beautiful thick flowers that turn purple towards harvest, and has a berry-like cake aroma. Since our goal was to match the flavor of Wedding Cake with the flower growth of Critical Kush, this backcross proved successful and she became our official Critical Cake BX1.


S1 stands for “Selfed” or “Self Pollination”. It is a method in which a specific female phenotype is selected to produce the next generation of seeds. The method of S1 production often involves the use of stress conditions, such as chemical treatments (STS spray) or light manipulation, to induce the plant to develop male sexual characteristics so that it can self-pollinate or another plant that has not been stress treated and thus serves as the recipient of the pollen.

See also: The difference between Regular, Feminist and Automatic Seeds

S1 seeds usually produce only female plants and may also have unique traits that are not present in other generations. However, since these are genetically-manipulated seeds, the number of hermaphrodites could also be increased.

It is important to note that these terms are not standardized and may be used differently from breeder to breeder. Therefore, it is important to carefully study the specific characteristics and properties of hemp seeds before buying them.

CRISPR/Cas9 in Cannabis – The Future of Genetic Engineering

What is CRISPR? CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats) is an innovative biotechnology tool [...]

Hermaphrodites – origins, implications and what the future holds

Hermaphrodite plants are natural and part of cultivating cannabis, even if it is an uncomfortable [...]

Genotype vs. Phenotype – What’s the difference?

Genotype and phenotype are terms used in genetics and refer to the characteristics of plants. [...]

Differences between Regular, Feminized and Automatic Seeds

Regular, feminized and automatic seeds differ in terms of their use and purpose in growing cannabis.

Automatic Seeds

Automatic or ruderalis genetics in cannabis refers to plants that self-pollinate independently of light cycles and thus flower automatically. This type of cannabis plant is shorter and bushier than regular or feminized plants, making it more suitable for growing in cooler climates or indoor systems with limited space.

Unlike regular and feminized plants that usually take several months to flower, Ruderalis plants flower in a much shorter time of just a few weeks. This makes them a preferred choice for growers who need a faster yield.

However, ruderalis plants usually produce lower THC levels compared to regular or feminized plants. Therefore, they are usually mixed or hybridized to achieve greater THC production.

Regular Seeds

Regular seeds are usually used when you intend to grow plants to produce more seeds. The seedlings from regular seeds can become both male and female.

Growers who work with regular seeds on a small area and do NOT aim for pollination often identify the male plants after about 14 days in the flowering phase and select them out. This avoids pollination and production of seeds..

See also: What does F1, S1, BX1 & IBL stand for?

Feminized Seeds

Feminized seeds, on the other hand, are used when one needs exclusively female plants, as they are the ones that produce the sought-after THC-rich resin. Feminized seeds have been modified to produce only female plants.

It is important to note that if mishandled or stressed, there is a possibility that feminized plants can mutate into male plants. Therefore, it is important to grow feminized seeds under controlled conditions and avoid stress.

See also: Hermaphrodites – origins, implications and what the future holds

In summary, regular seeds are for growers who want more control over the growing process, while feminized seeds are for growers who want to produce female plants as efficiently as possible.

As an addition: How are feminized or female-only seeds created?

STS spray is often used to manipulate the plant so that it then passes on only its X heterosome to produce feminized seed. This process interferes with hormone synthesis and hormone balance.
Indeed, the application of STS suppresses the production of ethylene, which is necessary for the expression of FEMALE sexual characteristics and reproductive organs. In the absence of ethylene, male pollen sacs develop in the place where female flowers would otherwise develop.

Since the female plant treated with STS contains only X chromosomes, the pollen from the plant treated by STS also contains only X chromosomes. Thus, the result, i.e., the seeds from the pollinated female flowers of our STS-treated plant, do not contain a mixture of Y and X chromosomes as in nature, but only X and X.

By the fact that STS tends to recombine/destroy/create new genes in increased amounts, feminization can both increase and decrease hermaphroditic pleasure. The hermy-promoting gene can be both destroyed by STS and “created” again by recombination.

What does F1, S1, BX1 & IBL stand for?

“F1”, “IBL”, “BX” and “S1” are terms used in cannabis breeding to describe different generations [...]

Research & Development at Grandma’s Genetics

Between the numerous blogs and seed banks in the cannabis field, we have made it [...]

Hermaphrodites – origins, implications and what the future holds

Hermaphrodite plants are natural and part of cultivating cannabis, even if it is an uncomfortable [...]

We hunt terpenes: effects, interactions, flavors.

When grandma used to come back from her heath walks with fresh limes from the orchard or fragrant lavender, their aromas spread throughout the house. Only later did we realize that the plants were grandma’s helpers for the mind. The scent of fresh citrus always put that warm smile on her face that we all love her for. The scent of lavender always soothed us all before bedtime, so that every night was pure relaxation.

Today, we grow cannabis strains and are thrilled by the variety of different flavors we can discover in the different strains. It is a gift of nature that cannabis combines so many different flavors in one plant. A multitude of flavors for which grandma had to go on long exploratory tours into nature back in the day. Because so many different flavors as in the cannabis plant, you look for other plant species in vain.

Thousands of terpenes make up the aroma of cannabis

The aromas of plants are called terpenes in technical jargon and are divided into 8000 different molecules. The crazy thing is that terpenes are not only olfactory in nature, but also have specific effects when inhaled, applied to the skin or eaten. We know it from lemons: Sour makes you happy. The terpene limonene is responsible for this. But let’s start with the general and then move on to the different, individual terpenes in the course of the text.

Since the endocannabinoid system was discovered in the last millennium, cannabis science has focused especially on the cannabinoid components of the plant for the time being: First THC, then eventually CBD, and today CBG, CBN, and many more. You can read more about the individual effects of the different cannabinoids in our specialist article on cannabinoids.

In short, cannabinoids essentially determine the effect of individual cannabis strains – for example, THC is mainly psychoactive, appetite enhancing and cancer fighting, while CBD has a relaxing effect in the head and muscles, helps against nerve pain and can also defeat certain types of cancer.

In the recent past, another group of secondary constituents of the cannabis plant was discovered: the terpenes. They modulate the mentioned cannabinoids in their specific mode of action and can be considered as inhibitors or enhancers of them. This circumstance makes the terpenes the actual variety differentiators. Their diversity exceeds that of the cannabinoids many times over.

Terpenes: Generic term for flavor- and effect-stimulating constituents of plants.

Terpenes, as indicated in the introduction, are not only found in cannabis plants, but give numerous flowers, fruits and other living things their characteristic scent and taste. Terpenes can even be produced synthetically in the 21st century, but that’s where our philosophy ends. Grandma would never let synthetic terpenes into her kitchen!

There are even terpenes from animal origin. In 2021, more than 8000 terpenes (hydrocarbons) and, more broadly, more than 30,000 terpenoids (hydrocarbons with functional chains) are known. Chemical separation techniques such as gas chromatography can be used to determine the terpene composition of a plant, and the results obtained can be used to determine plant species “backwards.” Each plant is known to have a certain terpene profile, and in the case of the cannabis plant, this can even be used to determine different varieties or strains!

Different varieties are known for certain terpene profiles. This is because the cannabis plant, as one of the most hybridized polyhybrid plant species in the world, now knows thousands of such terpene profiles, which differ from each other to a greater or lesser extent depending on the variety. This is because, unlike plants of basic nutrition such as cereals or potatoes, cannabis has not only been selected for maximum yield and resistance. Cannabis is in a way a luxury product and analogous to other luxury products like perfumes or power smoothies, cannabis is about the essence. About the divine, the spiritual, the healing. And what could be better suited for this than a comprehensive mix of terpenes and cannabinoids, which can only unfold its full potential through its diversity.

Terpenes, unlike cannabinoids such as THC and CBD, are not present in the plant in the double-digit percentage range, but are in the per thousand range.

A cannabis plant thus likes to contain only 0.2% of a certain terpene. Terpenes, however, are so much more effective than the known cannabinoids that they already unfold their effects in such low concentrations and also clearly shift the taste in a certain direction.

For these two reasons, cannabis breeders like Grandma’s Genetics in particular have made it their business to breed ever greater quantities of terpenes into varieties. But it’s not just quantity that counts; we also care about terpene diversity. We want to strengthen, conserve and improve existing terpene profiles. But discovering and breeding new terpene profiles is also one of our great passions.

Because at the end of the day, terpenes make the difference between a strain luring you into the couch, taking your creativity to new heights, or acting like a morning kick-start.

Incidentally, some terpenes are also cannabinoids, …

… such as the anti-inflammatory beta-caryophyllene. Cannabinoids can therefore be terpenes and terpenes can be cannabinoids. The boundaries flow into each other, as is so often the case.

Different terpenes and cannabinoids can produce different effects depending on the combination and mixing ratio. We call this observation the entourage effect. With a view to the 30,000 terpenoids and over a hundred cannabinoids, the combination possibilities can only be calculated with the help of supercomputers.

The realization of the entourage effect leads, for example, in medical CBD products in California more and more often to the fact that a small amount of THC above 1% is mixed into the CBD cream or CBD tincture, because otherwise some intended (medical) effects would be missing. It is explicitly not about the high, which would be missing, but other, more subtle effects.

Hundreds of terpenes can be found in different cannabis strains. The six most common terpenes found in cannabis are limonene, humulene, alpha-pinene, linalool, beta-caryophyllene and myrcene. A closer look at the terpenes is definitely worthwhile at this point, as the differences from terpene to terpene are sometimes very clear.

Myrcene – the “Mango terpene”

Let’s start with the terpene, which according to this research is the most abundant in cannabis strains. Myrcene is found in fragrant plants and herbs, including mango, which is famous for its myrcene content, lemongrass and thyme. Daniela Ludwig’s favorite plant, hops, also relies entirely on the pain-relieving terpene. Bay leaves, basil and cannabis round off the collection of myrcene-containing leaves, flowers and fruits.

Myrcene effect

If you like to smoke indica strains that push you into the couch, you most likely have a preference for myrcene. This is because this terpene is primarily associated with the sedative effects of cannabis. According to this source, cannabis strains with more than 0.5% myrcene (5 per mille) are said to produce the typical indica effect. Imagine that: 0.5% of the total biomass of the flowers, that would be equivalent to only 5mg in one gram! But hey: From a 5mg-THC-Edible one finally also feels an effect, and that is THC, which makes up 100mg-250mg of a gram bud and is thus consumed in significantly higher concentrations than myrcene.

Myrcene: The legend of the amplifying mango

We find the “stoner legend” of the mango, which is supposed to intensify the high after smoking a sports cigarette, funny. Even if this cannot always be reproduced in sessions that get out of hand, the myrcene effect is more pronounced, for example, in microdosing, i.e. low-dose, steady consumption. Here, additional myrcene indeed plays an important role: Because especially with small consumption units, myrcene plays out a helpful strength: Myrcene acts like a turbocharger for cannabinoids, in that the terpene shortens the time it takes for the accompanying cannabinoids to cross the blood-brain barrier. This increases the effect and makes the small dose look like a big one.

Myrcene also has an effect:

  • Anti-inflammatory
  • calming
  • analgesic
  • antibiotic
  • antimutagenic (inhibits mutations, thus reduces the spread of cancerous tumors)

Contrary to the indica-exclusive assumption, myrcene is also present in sativa and hybrid cannabis strains. Sure, after all, compared to other terpenes, myrcene occurs most frequently and in the highest concentrations of all terpenes in cannabis strains. For example, myrcene is found in the sativa-dominant Green Crack, which is a nice standard sativa in the US. Sativa classic Blue Dream also contains plenty of myrcene, as does the most classic of all indicas: Northern Lights. Other characteristic myrcene varieties with high indica content: White Widow, Himalayan Gold or Pure Kush.

For an optimal interaction of medicinal and other modulatory effects of myrcene, it is worth consuming strains that contain the following cannabinoids and terpenes in addition to myrcene:

  • CBD, THC (analgesic)
  • CBN, THC (sedative, calming)
  • CBD, CBG (inhibits mutation of cancer cells)
  • Nerolidol (sedative)


Outside of the cannabis plant, limonene is found primarily in citrus peels, rosemary, juniper, and peppermint. The distinctive terpene, which appears for example in Sour Diesel, Tangie, OG Kush or Super Lemon Haze, not only tastes uniquely and distinctly of lemon. Above all, it also evokes medicinal effects that are not to be neglected.

Medicinal effects of limonene

  • Limonene has an antibacterial effect
  • increases the receptivity of our skin, mucous membranes and intestinal wall for other terpenes
  • Research suggests efficacy in combating the common cancers of breast, prostate and pancreatic cancer.
  • relieves heartburn and gastroesophageal reflux disease (in the stomach)

Recreational effects of limonene 

Lime-containing cannabis strains are considered mood-enhancing – or as grandma used to say? Sour makes merry. Limonene has an activating and motivating effect, especially in combination with the cannabinoid CBG.

  • mood enhancing
  • tension relieving and
  • stress-reducing

Limonene is mainly found in sativa-dominant strains and can account for up to 2 percent of a plant’s biomass under the best conditions! However, this is highly dependent on the particular plant, because especially when raising cannabis plants from seed, the genetic lottery always plays an important role in what percentage of a terpene the plant actually expresses.

Optimal or constant conditions during planting can have a second major influence on the expression of terpenes, which is why special attention should be paid to this aspect when growing terpene-rich cannabis. The last two paragraphs are general tips for dealing with different cannabis strains and the expression of terpenes.

Limonene unfolds its full potential best in interaction with the following terpenes and cannabinoids:

  • CBD, CBG, CBN (anti-cancer)
  • CBG (antidepressant, mood elevator)
  • Linalool (anxiety relieving)

Limonene, by the way, is also popular in detergents, food, perfumes and medicine, because it is not only antibacterial, smells good and creates a stunning aroma, but also very tolerable due to its low toxicity.

Humulene (α-caryophyllene)

Humulen is characterized by earthy-woody scents. Associations with OG Kush or White Widow quickly come to mind. Humulene is thus one of the classic cannabis terpenes that has its very own fans.

In Europe, but also in the USA, cannabis strains with the woody-earthy and often also herbaceous-pungent taste of Humulen are comparatively popular. White Widow, Sour Diesel, Girl Scout Cookies or Skywalker OG: The first three of these strains can be found effortlessly in many Dutch coffee shops or Spanish social clubs.

The name humulene, by the way, comes from “humulus,” the Latin name for hops. The terpene is very prominent in hops. The parallel welds hops and hemp together as members of the same plant family. Humulene is also found in basil, coriander, cloves, ginger, ginseng, sage, peppermint and basil.

Humulen works:

  • Appetite reducing
  • Anti-inflammatory
  • Antibacterial
  • Analgesic

Humulene is also used in organic farming as a natural insecticide to repel insect pests.

Other humulene-rich strains besides OG Kush and White Widow are Cheese, Super Lemon Haze & Headband. All varieties that can also reach high THC levels!

Particularly intense synergistic effects without “overwriting” important effects of humulene can be achieved by consuming cannabis strains containing the following cannabinoids and terpenes:

  • CBC, CBG (displaces fungi from an organism).
  • THC (blood clotting inhibitor/ helps against clumping of the blood)
  • THCa, CBGa (can also be used as insecticide)

β-Caryophyllene – the “Haze Terpene”

Although β-caryophyllene has almost the same name as α-caryophyllene (=humulene), the two terpenes are quite distinct from each other. Unlike its earthy brother, β-caryophyllene adds sweet, spicy, pungent and clove scents to the earthy base. β-Caryophyllene also acts as a cannabinoid, occupying, for example, the CB2 receptors of our endocannabinoid system, which are primarily active in the immune system. The fact that β-caryophyllene acts as a cannabinoid is thanks to its comparatively complex.

Besides the cannabis plant, β-caryophyllene is particularly common in black cumin, cloves, hops, basil, oregano, black pepper, lavender or the detoxifying Copaiba oil. This is known from cosmetics and is used, for example, in creams.

Given this diversity of species in which the haze terpene occurs, it becomes clear what a complex terpene we are dealing with β-caryophyllene. This is because it is found in all these different plants and spices, but unfolds in different ways depending on what other terpenes and scents are present. We always keep the entourage effect in mind, because looking at terpenes in isolation without their interactions with other substances often points in a misleading direction.

β-Caryophyllene – hot like pepper

β-Caryophyllene is often expressed in the taste of cannabis as very spicy, sometimes even hearty. According to a study from Washington State, β-caryophyllene occurs equally in indicas, sativas and hybrids and reaches about 0.3 percent of the biomass in the majority of the examined strains, rarely values around 1 percent are reached.

One variety that contains a particularly high percentage of β-caryophyllene is the Death Star variety. Its total terpene content contains 56% percent β-caryophyllene! A sativa counterpart of the indica-heavy Death Star is the variety Candyland. But also balanced hybrids like Girl Scout Cookies, GG4 or White Widow stand for high β-caryophyllene values.

The terpene β-caryophyllene also provides the typical sweet-earthy-pungent, almost acrid smell in many Haze genetics.

The enormous medicinal potential of β-caryophyllene results from its function as a cannabinoid. By occupying CB2 receptors, β-caryophyllene increases the activation of immune system actions. CB2 receptors are found throughout tissues and have the special ability to increase their number in the brain after injury or illness. Internal inflammation can thus be stopped more quickly and the risk of brain damage is reduced. In addition, the perceived pain is lower when CB2 receptors are occupied than when the corresponding receptors are not occupied. As grandma used to say: Give nature a chance when treating your aches and pains.

Furthermore, β-caryophyllene has an effect:

  • Pain-relieving
  • Anti-inflammatory
  • Prevents many diseases through enhanced immune activity
  • Blood thinning/ counteracts clots
  • Prevents (epileptic) seizures or reduces their occurrence
  • May reduce required morphine doses
  • Probably prevents Alzheimer’s disease, as this is associated with inflammation in the brain and resulting deposits, against which β-caryophyllene helps.


Imagine for a moment that you’re standing in a Mediterranean coastal forest. Or in the middle of the giant redwoods or in Yosemite National Park. Then you have the eerily intense smell of the needle-scented terpene right in your head. The α-pine scent lingers in the air with a certain heaviness, yet remains pleasantly sweet with a hint of pungency. Pine – a fragrance that stands on its own. It can, of course, be enjoyed here in Europe in many places, for example, Corsica, France, Italy, Sardinia, Mallorca, Spain, and everywhere else where there is a maritime to subtropical climate and the corresponding conifers.

Apart from cannabis and conifers, we also find the terpene α-pinene in other plants. These include rosemary, dill, basil, orange peel and parsley. Fun fact: Turpentine oil, used in the production of sealing lacquers, also consists of up to 60% α-pinene!

α-Pinene is accompanied by a particular diversity, because depending on the arrangement of the individual elements of the α-Pinene molecule, different α-Pinene are formed: one variant occurs predominantly on the American continent ((+)-α-Pinene), the other predominantly in Europe ((-)-α-Pinene).

α-Pinene, like the psychoactive THC, serves as a defense mechanism against natural enemies for the plants in which it is contained and, like THC, is found in the trichomes or resin heads of the flower.

α-Pinene acts:

  • Anti-inflammatory
  • helps against THC-related (short-term) memory loss
  • Increases own attention
  • bronchodilator (helpful for asthma problems)

A prime example of α-pinene-containing strains, according to, is the popular Jack Herer strain, which was named after the legalization activist of the same name. It puts people in a good mood, improves concentration and focus, and increases creativity.

But also the prominent Sativa representative Blue Dream, which is mainly known for Blueberry notes, has a respectable α-pinene content! At, the effects of Jack Herer and Blue Dream are also characterized almost identically, in which α-pinene certainly also holds a not entirely insignificant share.

Besides these classics, α-pinene is also found in Super Silver Haze, Arjan’s Haze or Trainwreck.

The effects of pinene are particularly well displayed in strains that also contain the following cannabinoids and terpenes:

  • CBD (anti-inflammatory)
  • THC (dilates the bronchi, helpful against asthma)
  • CBD (improves the performance of THC-related poorer running [short-term] memory)
  • CBN, CBG (Antibacterial)


Finally, with linalool, we look again at a very well-known terpene – think of endless lavender fields in the French Provence! A scent that most people associate with positive associations. But associations with calming and good sleep also come to mind when thinking about linalool, because it clearly has a sedative effect. Grandma already knew why a bunch of lavender always hung in the bedroom.

The unmistakable, fresh-spicy taste of lavender stands for itself and makes itself daily not only in many cozy living rooms as an essential oil in the fragrance lamp.

Also by the one or other joint many rooms are aromatized in these hours with the beguiling, calming terpene. Linalool is not only found in lavender, lemon, laurel, rosewood and birch, but also in Skywalker OG, Headband, Lavender and Chem Dogg.

Linalool, as one of the less represented terpenes across all cannabis strains, has a high medicinal potential. For the recreational user, it should be said that linalool has quite a relaxing effect. It is hardly surprising that primarily indica varieties have comparatively high linalool values.

In medical indications, linalool is expected to have the following effects:

  • sleep-inducing
  • stress relieving
  • antidepressiv
  • anxiety-relieving
  • analgesic
  • antispasmodic
  • soothing

Linalool, which gives lavender its characteristic scent, is found in a comparatively large number of plants. Thus, one does not necessarily have to rely on cannabis for sleep disorders, but can also consume coriander, nutmeg, hops, ginger, savory, cinnamon, basil, marjoram, thyme, oregano, black pepper and many other spice plants to benefit from the many valuable effects of linalool.

Particularly intense synergistic effects without “overwriting” special effects of linalool can be achieved when consuming cannabis strains with the following cannabinoids and terpenes:

  • CBG (also anxiety-relieving)
  • CBN, THC (sedative)
  • CBD (analgesic)
  • Limonene (anxiety relieving)

A vaporizer can be used to selectively vaporize and “not vaporize” terpenes

As we know at the latest at the end of this article, terpenes have a modulating effect on other cannabinoids and terpenes. We also know that different terpenes and cannabinoids only vaporize at a certain temperature. Thus, by setting different temperatures in the vaporizer, one can precisely adjust which terpenes are vaporized from the flowers and which remain in the plant material. Of course, the principle only works to a limited extent, because if you want to enjoy a terpene in isolation, which evaporates at very high temperatures, you would have to waste the terpenes evaporating below this temperature.

Philosophically, however, you can also increase the temperature throughout the day with the same charge in the vaporizer head. So you vaporize the more invigorating terpenes and cannabinoids at the beginning of the day and the more sedating ones in the evening. Of course, terpenes and cannabinoids can’t be categorized in such a general way. However, this strategy works quite well in practice. THC-V, a cannabinoid that only vaporizes at 225 °C, for example, makes you very tired, as does linalool, which vaporizes at 197 °C. Invigorating terpenes like limonene and beta-caryophyllene, on the other hand, vaporize at a much lower 176 °C. So if you start the day with low temperatures, you’re more likely to get invigorating effects, and with high temperatures in the evening, you can let the same head sing you to sleep.

Here is a brief overview of the temperature at which the terpenes evaporate:

  • α-Pinene – 155 °C
  • Myrcene – 167 °C
  • Limonene – 176 °C
  • β-Caryophyllene – 176 °C
  • Humulen – 197 °C
  • Linalool – 198 °C

THC, CBD, CBG & CBN: The best-known cannabinoids at a glance

The ingredients of the cannabis plant have fascinated us humans for over 5000 years. Even our grandma’s grandma used the power of the cannabis plant to relieve toothache or simply to sleep better at night. Cannabis has also manifested its importance in the shamanistic tradition thousands of years ago. The ingredients of the cannabis plant are as diverse as the plant kingdom itself: Cannabis, on the one hand, can be an effective weapon against many ailments as a medicinal plant. On the other hand, it is possible to reach other dimensions of human consciousness with the help of cannabis and thus it is an important part of individual and social developments.

Some cannabis strains evoke more medicinal effects, while other strains appeal much more to the mind. For a long time, it was unknown to mankind why these differences came about and breeding for specific properties was often dependent on chance.

In the last century before the great millennium, researchers also turned their attention to the ingredients of the cannabis plant as biochemical relationships were discovered.

Cannabinoid hotspot Israel: History was made here

In Israel, the best-known cannabinoid molecule of the cannabis plant, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), was first isolated in 1964:

Raphael Mechoulam and Yehiel Gaoni made a breakthrough in cannabinoid research at the Weizmann Institute of Science in Israel when they first separated THC in its pure form from the rest of the plant. Since then, numerous other cannabinoids have been discovered and are gradually being found in more and more cannabis genetics.

But what might be much less known is the much earlier discovery of cannabidiol (CBD), which is popular in medicine today. CBD was discovered as early as 1940 at the University of Illinois – but was still considered toxic at the time.

THC and CBD are all the rage in 2020 – one due to its majority illegal status and psychic effects, the other due to its legal “cannabis light” status and calming, non-psychoactive effects. Joining them at the moment are the two cannabinoids CBG and CBD, on which great medical hopes are also based. In this article we want to briefly introduce the different cannabinoids. But at the beginning a few …

…common features of cannabinoids:

Cannabinoids are not only found in cannabis. So-called endocannabinoids are produced by the body itself, including Anandamide, for example. And in the plant kingdom, cannabinoids are not only found in hemp plants: All cannabinoids that originate from the plant kingdom are referred to as phytocannabinoids.

The endocannabinoid system

The endocannabinoid system is part of the human nervous system and is characterized by the CB1 and CB2 receptors. So-called ligands, imaginable as keys, dock onto these receptors, which can be pictured as locks. CBD, THC and the other cannabinoids together with the body’s own cannabinoids such as anandamide form these ligands.

The two receptor types are found in different areas of the nervous system. CB1 receptors are predominantly found in the central nervous system, i.e. the brain and spinal cord. However, CB1 receptors are also found in the peripheral nervous system, such as the intestinal wall. Cannabinoids that dock to CB1 receptors are responsible, for example, for feelings of happiness, pain inhibition, anxiety reduction or appetite.

CB2 receptors are found primarily in immune cells and in bone structure, but are still much less researched at the moment. However, initial studies already indicate where the journey is headed: the course of Alzheimer’s disease, for example, can be positively influenced by cannabis. But now to the individual cannabinoids:

THC – Tetrahydrocannabinol

THC is the psychoactive component of the cannabis plant. The molecule is present in the plant as THCa – THC acid. This THC acid must be heated in order to be converted into the psychoactive THC without a.

The ingestion of THC directly and indirectly affects the metabolism of the human body. Among other things, THC causes a modulation of human hormone levels. For example, THC takes an influence on serotonin, dopamine and cortisol levels. This controls, for example, the feeling of happiness, the feeling of pain and the perception of stress.

THC in medicine and recreation: Parallels

There are many parallels in the arousal of a state of happiness and the relief of pain when one looks at the biochemical processes in the body. However, differences usually arise in the initial situation of individual persons, i.e. in which ratio the individual hormones are present to each other at the moment and which physical processes influence the hormone balance. The bottom line is that the same mechanisms are at work in medical treatment with THC and recreational use for the purpose of a release of happiness.

Thus, THC is used in the medical field primarily in pain relief and as a holistic medication that targets deep into the body.

THC is used in pain patients, ADHD, fibromyalgia, sleep disorders, certain cancers, treating the side effects of chemo therapy, Alzheimer’s disease, and many other areas.

For example, the risks of THC use include increased risk of anxiety disorder, depression, and at a young age, the possibility of psychosis.

CBD – Cannabidiol

One of the biggest trends in cannabis revolves around non-psychoactive CBD. Introduced in many places as “cannabis light,” cannabidiol is breaking down the barriers between the condemned plant and social acceptance of cannabis. Due to its non-psychoactive nature, CBD is allowed in many countries – it is used in CBD oils, creams or dog treats, for example.

Because the cannabis revolutionary CBD is said to have many medicinal properties. Among other things, CBD has an anti-inflammatory effect, stimulates the formation of new cells and regeneration, influences the heartbeat, strengthens immune reactions and influences a person’s mood.

CBD as an antagonist of THC

An important aspect of CBD is found in its opposite effect to THC. For where THC can increase anxiety, CBD is known for its anxiety-relieving properties. CBD has a calming effect and actively counteracts the psychoactive effect of THC.

But CBD not only counteracts THC in certain effects – in some aspects, the two cannabinoids also complement each other. Thus, THC in low concentrations even promotes the absorption capacity of CBD. In their calming properties, the two cannabinoids complement each other.

CBG – Cannabigerol

CBG, like CBD, is NOT psychoactive, at least on its own. This is because some users of CBG report an increase in the feeling of euphoria when CBG is consumed together with THC. There is much evidence to suggest that CBG interacts and crossacts with other cannabinoids.

In medicine, initial studies indicate that CBG has an antibiotic effect and supports the body in immune responses. This could be found, for example, in MS patients or Huntington’s disease patients. CBG has an anti-nausea effect.

CBG acts primarily at CB1 receptors, i.e., in the brain and other areas of the central nervous system.

A very interesting property of CBG is its antibacterial property, as studied by McMaster University in Hamilton, Canada. In this study, the antibacterial effect against multi-resistant bacteria of the Staphylococcus Aureus strain was demonstrated.

Since the research with CBG is still at the very beginning, it should be pointed out at this point that numerous findings will be added in the next few years and some current observations may also turn out to be wrong. Time will tell.

CBN – Cannabinol

While there are already CBG flowers and products with CBG in Europe, CBN is still much rarer. CBN is still much more mystified at the moment and still has a very long way to go when it comes to scientific findings and social acceptance.

It is already known that CBN is slightly psychoactive and only occurs in very low concentrations in the living plant. This is due to the fact that CBN is a degradation product of THC. In stored cannabis, therefore, usually higher CBN concentrations are found, because here already more time was available for the conversion of THC to CBN. In stored, oxidized cannabis products such as hashish, for example, one therefore finds comparatively high CBN concentrations.

Unlike CBG, CBN has a greater affinity to dock with CB2 receptors than with CB1.

Versatile application possibilities of CBN in medicine

CBN has anti-inflammatory and antibacterial properties, and can be used as a sedative and for asthma relief. In conjunction with THC, CBN lowers intraocular pressure and can therefore be used to treat conditions such as glaucoma.

In many products such as cannabinoid flavor oils, CBN is added because the cannabinoid is said to have a strong fatigue-inducing effect. Anyone who has ever tried long-stored hashish probably knows what is meant by this.

We hunt terpenes: effects, interactions, flavors.

When grandma used to come back from her heath walks with fresh limes from the [...]

CRISPR/Cas9 in Cannabis – The Future of Genetic Engineering

What is CRISPR? CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats) is an innovative biotechnology tool [...]

What does breeding actually mean?

The aim of plant breeding is the genetic modification of plant populations to improve biological [...]

What does breeding actually mean?

The aim of plant breeding is the genetic modification of plant populations to improve biological and economic properties. It is based on plant selection, seed treatment or crossing with subsequent selection of daughter plants for the next breeding cycle or subsequent propagation as seeds of a new plant variety (seed breeding).

Since you have now read the official declaration of “breeding”, we would like to say a few things about it and one thing directly in advance: All texts here are purely for information purposes as well as for further education and pure entertainment. It is a subjective opinion summarized from experiences and stories collected over the years.We are not calling for imitation of any of these things or anything like that.

Everyone breeds in his own way. To call things “wrong” or “right” is not our thing, because there are no limits to creative freedom. Some prefer to work in small fields while others prefer a small garden with smaller pots, because it is the seed that makes each plant unique.

See also: Genotype vs. Phenotype – What’s the difference?

Every breeder is his own blacksmith, cook and teacher at the same time and this is a good thing, because each of them makes his own experiences and thus tells his own universal story. But between all the interesting stories one thing will always remain the same. Breeding means investing a lot of time and effort. Because new and interesting terpene profiles are not available at every corner and not every female plant gets along with every male.

Breeding new and interesting varieties involves planting a wide range of seeds to have the widest possible selection of genotypes and phenotypes.

From these seeds, most breeders choose the most stable varieties, which they find most appealing in appearance, growth, smell and taste (in female plants). Accurate laboratory tests of canabinoids, terpenes and microorganisms help today’s breeders to select their strongest phenotypes, which are then pollinated with their selected males. A new gene pool (F1) is created. The breeder could now create an F2 generation by reselecting the seeds or work on a backcross, which can be developed with the same (already selected) male.

See also: What does F1, S1, BX1 & IBL stand for?

Some breeders prefer to feminize their favorite phenotypes. This usually involves the use of chemicals such as STS (Silver Thiosulfate) or others. To perform these processes, the Female Plant is “Reserved”, i.e. sprayed with STS to stop the female hormones within the plant so that it develops male traits like pollen sacs which in turn are used for pollination to produce the feminized seeds (S1).

See also: Differences between Regular, Feminized and Automatic Seeds

As you can see, this topic gets lost very quickly in various sub-themes and possibilities. To go into each of them in more detail you need several blogs. We hope that this little insight could help you so far.

Genotype vs. Phenotype – What’s the difference?

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Genotype vs. Phenotype – What’s the difference?

Genotype and phenotype are terms used in genetics and refer to the characteristics of plants.

Genotype refers to all the genetic information of a plant stored in its chromosomes. This includes both visible traits (e.g. color of flowers or shape of leaves) and invisible traits (e.g. susceptibility to certain diseases).

Phenotype refers to the visible and measurable characteristics of a plant that are determined by the interaction of genotype and environmental conditions. For example, a plant’s height can be affected by its genotype, as well as the amount of light and nutrients it receives.

It is important to note that a plant’s phenotype does not necessarily reflect its genotype. For example, a plant may have a specific gene for blue flowers, but if it grows in an environment with low light, it may still produce pink flowers. Therefore, it is possible for two plants to have the same genotype but have different phenotypes.

Simplified example:

Banana Joe x Critical Kush = Banana Crush

These two parents gave the variety “Banana Crush” a unique DNA.

If 12 seeds of this genotype (Banana Crush) are planted, each plant will have its own characteristics. These characteristics make up the phenotype of each plant. Growth, appearance, smell and taste are only a few examples.

Each of the 12 seed plants will taste slightly different but will be very similar at best (this depends on the generation of the genotype variety and how stable it is).

  • Pheno #1 – Could have very Sativa heavy leaves
  • Pheno #2 – Has more hybrid heavy duty blades with high resin content
  • Pheno #3 – Characterized by its compact growth
  • Pheno #4 – Grows fast with many strong side branches
  • Pheno #5 – …
  • etc.

The individual phenotypes could be distinguished from which the respective breeder can then choose his favorite, which is most appealing to him.

If you want to learn more about this topic, we recommend you to have a look at Mendel’s inheritance of traits.

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